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Research Studies

Research Studies

2019 – Environmentally Friendly Candles with Reduced Particle Emissions (pdf)

2016 – Comment on “Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit” (Heinze & Silverman, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 303, page 171, 2016)

2014 — Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulateemissions from scented candles

2007 — Analysis of Emissions from Paraffin, Soy, Palm, Beeswax and Stearin Candles. 2007 Okometric Study Summary (pdf)

1999 — Analysis of Emissions from Heavily Fragranced Candles: English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): 1999 Okometric Study (pdf)

1997 — Analysis of Emissions from Fragranced Candles: English translation (combined Parts 1 & 2). Courtesy National Candle Association: Okometric 97 Study (pdf)

1994 – Analysis and Risk Assessment of Raw Materials and Emissions from Paraffin, Beeswax and Stearin Candles: English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): Translation Schwind et al 1994 (pdf)

General Candle Studies

Characterization of air emissions from burning candles 

(Derudi et al., 2012, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 55, pages 257-62, 2012; Orecchio, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, pages 1888-95, 2011)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012002683 (free access to abstract)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231010010502 (free access to abstract)

Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from Burning Church Candles

(Derudi et al., 2012, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 55, pages 257-62, 2012) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es981039v (Free Abstract Access)

Characterization of Candle Flames

https://www.nist.gov/publications/characterization-candle-flames (Free Abstract Access)

The Quality Candle

German version: Die Qualitaetskerze (pdf)
English version: Matthaei Petereit 2004 The Quality Candle (pdf)

Purchase at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012002683 (free access to abstract)

Purchase at:  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231010010502 (free access to abstract)