Research Studies

Research Studies

2021 Comprehensive Candle Safety Study

2021 Measurement and evaluation of gaseous and particulate emissions from burning scented and unscented candles (pdf)

2021Candle Study Summary (pdf)

Other Studies

2019 – Environmentally Friendly Candles with Reduced Particle Emissions (pdf)

2016 – Comment on “Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit” (Heinze & Silverman, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 303, page 171, 2016)

2014 — Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulateemissions from scented candles

2007 — Analysis of Emissions from Paraffin, Soy, Palm, Beeswax and Stearin Candles. 2007 Okometric Study Summary (pdf)

1999 — Analysis of Emissions from Heavily Fragranced Candles: English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): 1999 Okometric Study (pdf)

1997 — Analysis of Emissions from Fragranced Candles: English translation (combined Parts 1 & 2). Courtesy National Candle Association: Okometric 97 Study (pdf)

1994 – Analysis and Risk Assessment of Raw Materials and Emissions from Paraffin, Beeswax and Stearin Candles: English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): Translation Schwind et al 1994 (pdf)

General Candle Studies

Characterization of air emissions from burning candles 

(Derudi et al., 2012, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 55, pages 257-62, 2012; Orecchio, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 45, pages 1888-95, 2011)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012002683 (free access to abstract)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231010010502 (free access to abstract)

Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from Burning Church Candles

(Derudi et al., 2012, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 55, pages 257-62, 2012) http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es981039v (Free Abstract Access)

Characterization of Candle Flames

https://www.nist.gov/publications/characterization-candle-flames (Free Abstract Access)

The Quality Candle

German version: Die Qualitaetskerze (pdf)
English version: Matthaei Petereit 2004 The Quality Candle (pdf)

Purchase at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012002683 (free access to abstract)

Purchase at:  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231010010502 (free access to abstract)