research-1Research Studies

2007 — Analysis of Emissions from Paraffin, Soy, Palm, Beeswax and Stearin Candles.

2007 Okometric Study Summary (pdf)

1999 — Analysis of Emissions from Heavily Fragranced Candles

English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): 1999 Okometric Study (pdf)

1997 — Analysis of Emissions from Fragranced Candles

English translation (combined Parts 1 & 2). Courtesy National Candle Association: Okometric 97 Study (pdf)

1994 – Analysis and Risk Assessment of Raw Materials and Emissions from Paraffin, Beeswax and Stearin Candles.

English translation (courtesy National Candle Association): Translation Schwind et al 1994 (pdf)

General Candle Studies

Characterization of Fine Particle Emissions from Burning Church Candles.

Purchase at

Characterization of Candle Flames (Free Access)

The Quality Candle

German version: Die Qualitaetskerze (pdf)
English version: Matthaei Petereit 2004 The Quality Candle (pdf)